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James Sullivan
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Principal Investigator in the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute of Florida Atlantic University
Recent PACE-related Publications | See All ►
An Overview of Approaches and Challenges for Retrieving Marine Inherent Optical Properties from Ocean Color Remote Sensing (2018)
Simulation of the Scattering Properties of a Chain-forming Triangular Prism Oceanic Diatom (2016)
Studying Undisturbed Particle Fields in the Ocean Novel Instrument Suite for More Representative Particle Measurements (2016)
Polarimetric Imaging and Retrieval of Target Polarization Characteristics in Underwater Environment (2016)

Science Meeting Presentations (8)

Improving IOP Measurement Uncertainties for PACE Ocean Color Remote Sensing Applications
Sullivan, J., Twardowski, M., Moore, T., McKee, D., Röttgers, R., and Stockley, N. (16-Jan-18). Click here to view this presentation with audio.
Assessing the Impact of a Variable Seawater Depolarization Ratio on IOP Retrievals
Moore, T., Sullivan, J., and Twardowski, M. (16-Jan-18)
Improving IOP Measurement Uncertainties for PACE Ocean Color Remote Sensing Applications
Sullivan, J., Twardowski, M., Moore, T., McKee, D., Röttgers, R., and Stockley, N. (17-Jan-17). Click here to view this presentation with audio.
Improving Retrieval of IOPs from Ocean Color Remote Sensing Through Explicit Consideration of the Volume Scattering Function
Twardowski, M., Sullivan, J., Tonizzo, A., Stockley, N., Freeman, S., and Slivkoff, M. (17-Jan-17). Click here to view this presentation with audio.
Improving Retrieval of IOPs from Ocean Color Remote Sensing Through Explicit Consideration of the Volume Scattering Function
Twardowski, M., Sullivan, J., Tonizzo, A., Stockley, N., Freeman, S., and Slivkoff, M. (21-Jan-16)
Improving IOP Measurement Uncertainties for PACE Ocean Color Remote Sensing Applications
Sullivan, J. (21-Jan-16)
Improving IOP Measurement Uncertainties for PACE Ocean Color Remote Sensing Applications
Sullivan, J., Twardoswski, M. and Moore, T. (14-Jan-15)
Improving Retrieval of IOPs from Ocean Color Remote Sensing Through Explicit Consideration of the VSF
Twardowski, M. and Sullivan, J. (14-Jan-15)

ROSES Proposal

Improving IOP Measurement Uncertainties for PACE Ocean Color Remote Sensing Applications
A goal of the PACE Science Team is to achieve consensus and develop communityendorsed paths for measurement suites required for the PACE mission. This proposed work will specifically address the inherent optical properties of absorption and backscattering, better quantifying uncertainties using current and emerging methods, and improving uncertainties in both reprocessed historical data and future data collections for the PACE mission. Accurate values of absorption and backscattering, and estimates of their uncertainties, are critical for remote sensing validation and development/refinement of retrieval algorithms. However, one aspect of each property stands out as an enduring source of uncertainty. For absorption measurements in particle fields, this aspect is the scattering error associated with reflective tube absorption technologies (as in the widely used WET Labs ac devices). Recent testing in our labs has shown that the different schemes used to correct this error in virtually all of the ac device data submitted to SeaBASS over the last 20 years has significant errors (10% or >). At this time, these errors are acknowledged (e.g. Leymarie et al. 2010; McKee et al. 2013), but there is no consensus on a recommended protocol for correcting scattering errors with the best accuracy possible. For backscattering, the largest area of uncertainty in clear ocean waters is the backscattering contribution from the pure seawater itself, which can comprise 80-90% of total backscattering for great swaths of the ocean. Recently, Zhang et al. (2009) revised the theory to describe pure seawater scattering as a function of the physical properties of water (i.e., temperature, salinity, pressure), but a single critical physical constant of pure water used in these calculations remains poorly known: the depolarization ratio, which is the ratio of horizontally polarized light to vertically polarized light in the scattered beam at 90°. The value the in situ optics community is currently using comes from a single study conducted nearly 40 years ago (Farinato & Rowell 1976). In that work, 3 experimental values were actually derived: 0.051, 0.045, and 0.039, each with different viewing optics. Currently, the lowest one measured, 0.039 is usually recommended because of the difficulties with stray light contamination possibly elevating their other experimental values. For decades, the remote sensing community has typically used the pure seawater scattering values of Morel (1974), which followed a different theoretical approach, with a recommended depolarization value of 0.09 (more than 100% higher than our current best guess), based on the state of knowledge at the time. Thus, one is left with virtually no confidence in the accuracy of this parameter, only a gut feeling that we are in the ballpark. We should note here that even relatively modest uncertainties in the depolarization ratio (e.g. 10%) could translate to large uncertainties in open ocean particulate backscattering retrievals (e.g. 40%), due to the fact that the subtracted pure seawater component can be 80-90% of the entire water-leaving signal. We propose to conduct comprehensive historical data analyses to fully characterize uncertainties in the scattering error for reflective tube absorption meters, and to determine and validate optimal scattering correction methods through minor lab experimentation for different deployment configurations and suites of ancillary measurements. The impacts of using different depolarization ratio values for the determination of pure water backscattering on uncertainties in ocean color retrieval algorithms will also be investigated. We further propose to use modern, specialized, bench top volume scattering function equipment and water purification methods in our lab to determine and validate with rigorous uncertainty the precise value of the depolarization ratio to improve the accuracy of retrievals for historical data and the future PACE mission.

Publications (32)

Werdell, P.J., McKinna, L.I.W., Boss, E., Ackleson, S.G., Craig, S.E., Gregg, W.W., Lee, Z., Maritorena, S., Roesler, C.S., Rousseaux, C.S., Stramski, D., Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Tzortziou, M. and Zhang, X. (2018). An Overview of Approaches and Challenges for Retrieving Marine Inherent Optical Properties from Ocean Color Remote Sensing, Prog. Oceanogr., 160, 186-212, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2018.01.001 .
Sun, B., Kattawar, G.W., Yang, P., Twardowski, M.S., and Sullivan, J.M. (2016). Simulation of the Scattering Properties of a Chain-forming Triangular Prism Oceanic Diatom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 178, 390-399, doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.02.035.
Twardowski, M., Sullivan, J. and Dalgleish, F. (2016). Studying Undisturbed Particle Fields in the Ocean Novel Instrument Suite for More Representative Particle Measurements, Sea Technol, 57(2), 15-19.
Gu, Y., Carrizo, C., Gilerson, A.A., Parrish C. Brady, P.D., Cummings, M.E., Twardowski, M.S., Sullivan, J.M., Ibrahim, A.I., and Kattawar, G.W. (2016). Polarimetric Imaging and Retrieval of Target Polarization Characteristics in Underwater Environment, Appl. Opt., 55(3), 626-637, doi: 10.1364/AO.55.000626.
Brady, P., Gilerson, A., Kattawar, G., Sullivan, J., Twardowski, M., Dierssen, H., Gao, M., Travis, K., Etheredge, R.I., Tonizzo, A., Ibrahim, A., Carrizo, C., Gu, Y., Russell, B., Mislinski, K., Zhao, S., Tonizzo, A., and Cummings, M. (2015). Open-Ocean Fish Reveal an Omnidirectional Solution to Camouflage in Polarized Environments, Science, 350(6263), 965-969, doi: 10.1126/science.aad5284.
McFarland, M.N., Rines, J., Sullivan, J., and Donaghay, P. (2015). Impact of Phytoplankton Size and Physiology on Particulate Optical Properties Determined with Scanning Flow Cytometry, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 531, 43-61, doi: 10.3354/meps11325.
Churnside, J.H., Sullivan, J.M., and Twardowski, M.S. (2014). Lidar Extinction-to-backscatter Ratio of the Ocean, Opt. Express, 22(15), 18698-18706, doi: 10.1364/OE.22.018698.
Gilerson, A.A., Stepinski, J., Ibrahim, A.I., You, Y., Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Dierssen, H.M., Russell, B., Cummings, M.E., Brady, P., Ahmed, S.A., and Kattawar, G.W. (2013). Benthic Effects on the Polarization of Light in Shallow Waters, Appl. Opt., 52(36), 8685-8705, doi: 10.1364/AO.52.008685.
Lee, J.H., Churnside, J.H., Marchbanks, R.D., Donaghay, P.L., and Sullivan, J.M. (2013). Oceanographic Lidar Profiles Compared with Estimates from In Situ Optical Measurements, Appl. Opt., 52, 786-794, doi: 10.1364/AO.52.000786.
Talapatra, S., Hong, J., McFarland, M., Nayak, A.R., Zhang, C., Katz, J., Sullivan, J., Twardowski, M., Rines, J., and Donaghay, P. (2013). Characterization of Biophysical Interactions in the Water Column Using In Situ Digital Holography, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 473, 29-51, doi: 10.3354/meps10049.
Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Zaneveld, J.R.V., and Moore, C.C. (2012). Measuring Optical Backscattering in Water, In Light Scattering Reviews 7 (A.A. Kokhanovsky, ed.), 189-224, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-21907-8_6.
Gleason, A.C.R., Voss, K.J., Gordon, H.R., Twardowski, M., Sullivan, J., Trees, C., Weidemann, A., Berthon, J.-F., Clark, D., and Lee, Z.-P. (2012). Detailed Validation of the Bidirectional Effect in Various Case I and Case II Waters, Opt. Express, 20(7), 7630-7645, doi: 10.1364/OE.20.007630.
Twardowski, M., Zhang, X., Vagle, S., Sullivan, J., Freeman, S., Czerski, H., You, Y., Bi, L., and Kattawar, G. (2012). The Optical Volume Scattering Function in a Surf Zone Inverted to Derive Sediment and Bubble Particle Subpopulations, J. Geophys. Res., 117(C7), C00H17, doi: 10.1029/2011JC007347.
You, Y., Tonizzo, A., Gilerson, A.A., Cummings, M.E., Brady, P., Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Dierssen, H.M., Ahmed, S.A., and Kattawar, G.W. (2011). Measurements and Simulations of Polarization States of Underwater Light in Clear Oceanic Waters, Appl. Opt., 50(24), 4873-4893, doi: 10.1364/AO.50.004873.
Rines, J.E.B., McFarland, M.N., Donaghay, P.L., and Sullivan, J.M. (2010). Thin Layers and Species-Specific Characterization of the Phytoplankton Community in Monterey Bay, California USA, Cont. Shelf Res., 30(1), 66-80, doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2009.11.001.
Ryan, J.P., McManus, M.A., and Sullivan, J.M. (2010). Interacting Physical, Chemical and Biological Forcing of Phytoplankton Thin-layer Variability in Monterey Bay, California, Cont. Shelf Res., 30(1), 7-16, doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2009.10.017.
Sullivan, J.M. and Twardowski, M.S. (2009). Angular Shape of the Volume Scattering Function in the Backwards Direction, Appl. Opt., 48(35), 6811-6819, doi: 10.1364/AO.48.006811.
Zhang, X., Hu, L., Twardowski, M.S., and Sullivan, J.M. (2009). Scattering by Solutions of Major Sea Salts, Opt. Express, 17(22), 19580-19585, doi: 10.1364/OE.17.019580.
Sullivan, J.M., Donaghay, P.L., and Rines, J.E.B. (2009). Coastal Thin Layer Dynamics: Consequences to Biology and Optics, Cont. Shelf Res., 30(1), 50-65, doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2009.07.009.
McManus, M.A., Kudela, R.M., Silver, M.W., Steward, G.F., Donaghay, P.L., and Sullivan, J.M. (2007). Cryptic Blooms: Are Thin Layers the Missing Connection?, Estuar. Coast., 31(2), 396-401, doi: 10.1007/s12237-007-9025-4.
Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Zaneveld, J.R., Moore, C., Barnard, A., Donaghay, P.L., and Rhoades, B. (2006). Hyperspectral Temperature and Salt Dependencies of Absorption by Water and Heavy Water in the 400-750 nm Spectral Range, Appl. Opt., 45(21), 5294-5309, doi: 10.1364/AO.45.005294.
Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Donaghay, P.L., and Freeman, S. (2005). Using Optical Scattering to Discriminate Particle Types in Coastal Waters, Appl. Opt., 44(9), 1667-1680, doi: 10.1364/AO.44.001667.
Twardowski, M.S., Boss, E., Sullivan, J.M., and Donaghay, P.L. (2004). Modeling Spectral Absorption by Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), Mar. Chem., 89(1-4), 69-88, doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2004.02.008.
Sullivan, J.M., Swift, E., Donaghay, P.L., and Rines, J.E.B. (2003). Small-scale Turbulence Affects the Division Rate and Morphology of Two Red-tide Dinoflagellates, Harmful Algae 2(3), 183-199, doi: 10.1016/S1568-9883(03)00039-8.
Holliday, D.V., Donaghay, P.L., Greenlaw, C.F., McGehee, D.E., McManus, M.M., Sullivan, J.M., and Miksis, J.L. (2003). Advances in Defining Fine- and Micro-scale Pattern in Marine Plankton, Aquat. Living Resour., 16(3), 131-136, doi: 10.1016/S0990-7440(03)00023-8.
Sullivan, J.M. and Swift, E. (2003). Effects of Small-scale Turbulence on the Net Growth Rate and Size of Ten Species of Marine Dinoflagellates, J. Phycol., 39(1), 83-94, doi: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.02094.x.
Alldredge, A.L., Cowles, T.J., MacIntyre, S., Rines, J.E.B., Donaghay, P.L., Greenlaw, C.F., Holliday, D.V., Dekshenieks, M.M., Sullivan, J.M., and Zaneveld, R.V. (2002). Occurrence and Mechanisms of Formation of a Dramatic Thin Layer of Marine Snow in a Shallow Pacific Fjord, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 233, 1-12, doi: 10.3354/meps233001.
Rines, J.E.B., Donaghay, P.L., Dekshenieks, M., Sullivan, J.M., and Twardowski, M.S. (2002). Thin Layers and Camouflage: Hidden Pseudo-Nitzschia Spp. (Bacillariophyceae) Populations in a Fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, U.S.A., Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 225, 123-137 doi: 10.3354/meps225123.
Dekshenieks, M.M., Donaghay, P.L., Sullivan, J.M., Rines, J.E.B., Osborn, T.R., and Twardowski, M.S. (2001). Temporal and Spatial Occurrence of Thin Phytoplankton Layers in Relation to Physical Processes, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 223, 61-71, doi: 10.3354/meps223061.
Twardowski, M.S., Sullivan, J.M., Donaghay, P.L., and Zaneveld, R.V. (1999). Microscale Quantification of the Absorption by Dissolved and Particulate Material in Coastal Waters with an ac-9, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 16, 691-707, doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(1999)016<0691:MQOTAB>2.0.CO;2.
Sullivan, J.M. and Swift, E. (1995). Photoenhancement of Bioluminescence Capacity in Natural and Laboratory Populations of the Autotrophic Dinoflagellate Ceratium Fusus (Ehrenb.) Dujardin, J. Geophys. Res., 100(C4), 6565-6574, doi: 10.1029/94JC01511.
Sullivan, J.M. and Swift, E. (1994). Photoinhibition of Mechanically Stimulable Bioluminescence in the Autotrophic Dinoflagellate Ceratium Fusus (Pyrrophyta), J. Phycol., 30(4), 627-633, doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1994.00627.x.