Jumbo Content

Early Adopter

Salem Ibrahim Salem
Salem Ibrahim Salem
Kyoto University of Advanced Science | Website

Applied Research Topic

Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) and Red/blue Tide Detection and Modeling for Coastal and Inland Waters in Asia
Co-Is: Eko Siswanto, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology; Hiroto Higa, Yokohama National University

Potential Applications HAB and red tide detection for coastal and inland Japanese, Indonesian, and Thai waters


Ocean color satellite data is a key component of sustainable, routine water quality monitoring. When combined with field observations, water quality estimation models may be developed via ocean color satellite data for environmentally problematic coastal and inland waters. This project will develop suitable water quality monitoring and atmospheric correction models for satellite ocean color data to detect HABs, red tides, and blue tides in coastal areas and lakes of Japan, Indonesia, and Thailand.


Coastal and inland water bodies, such as lakes, are important aquatic habitats, providing marine and recreational resources. However, these regions are susceptible to eutrophication and environmental problems, such as HABs and red and blue tides. Periodic and routine monitoring via ocean color satellite retrievals is critical to conserve and to effectively manage these waters.


HAB detection is often challenging with current multi-spectral ocean color satellite instruments, and satellite ocean color retrievals are often complicated in coastal and shallow waters. Therefore, PACE will serve two roles for this projects: 1) PACE will provide continuity support for existing water quality monitoring models already in use, and 2) PACE's hyperspectral data will enable the development of new, advanced water quality monitoring models that are regionally appropriate for the coastal and inland water bodies of Japan.

End User(s)

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism, Government of Japan
Port and Airport Research Institute, Marine Environmental Information Group
Chiba Prefectural Fisheries Research Center

SAT Partner(s)

Nima Pahlevan


Higa, H., Sugahara, S., Salem, S.I., Nakamura, Y., & Suzuki, T. (2020). An estimation method for blue tide distribution in Tokyo Bay based on sulfur concentrations using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 235; 106615. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2020.106615.

Salem, S.I., Higa, H., Kim, H., Kazuhiro, K., Kobayashi, H., Oki, K., & Oki, T. (2017) Multi-Algorithm Indices and Look-Up Table for Chlorophyll-a Retrieval in Highly Turbid Water Bodies Using Multispectral Data, Remote Sensing, 9(6), 556, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9060556.

Salem, S., Higa, H., Kim, H., Kobayashi, H., Oki, K., & Oki, T. (2017) Assessment of chlorophyll-a algorithms considering different trophic statuses and optimal bands. Sensors, 17(8), 1746. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081746.

Siswanto, E., Ishizaka, J., Tripathy, S.C., & Miyamura, K. (2013) Detection of harmful algal blooms of Karenia mikimotoi using MODIS measurements: A case study of Seto-Inland Sea, Japan. Remote Sensing of Environment, 129, 185 -196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.11.003.

Large blue tide offshore of Makuhari in Tokyo Bay, Japan
Large blue tide offshore of Makuhari in Tokyo Bay, Japan. Blue tides occur when bottom water containing sulfide (H2S) generated by anaerobic bacteria rises to the surface in an upwelling phenomenon due to external forces such as continuous winds. When H2S from the upwelling reacts with oxygen, sulfur colloid particles are generated, and light scattering of sulfur colloid particles results in significant blue coloration at the ocean surface, producing a phenomenon called blue tide. The blue tide is recognized as an important environmental problem because it causes mass mortality of fish and shellfish.
Algal bloom
Ruddy-brownish discoloration of surface water caused by an algal bloom (Noctiluca scintillant) in the Choshi offshore water, Japan.
Algal bloom of Green Noctiluca scintillans
Algal blooms of Green Noctiluca scintillans that contain Pedinomonas noctiluca as an endosymbiont frequently occur in the upper Gulf of Thailand. (Photo courtesy of Dr. Anukul Buranapratheprat, Burapha University)